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FM system use on phonological awareness skills (Reynolds & Werfel, 2022)

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posted on 2022-08-29, 21:12 authored by Gabriella Reynolds, Krystal L. Werfel

Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of utilizing a frequency modulation (FM) system during phonological awareness intervention for students at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting.

Method: Four first-grade students participated in an adapted-alternating single-case design study. Participants completed intervention targeting two phonological awareness skills and were assigned to wear an FM system during lessons targeting one skill and no FM system during lessons targeting the second skill. Performance was assessed using daily assessments on the skills targeted during intervention and one additional skill.

Results: Two participants demonstrated quicker and more pronounced improvement on the skill learned while wearing the FM system. The other two participants did not show improvement on any skill.

Conclusions: For children who made gains as a result of phonological awareness intervention, the FM system was associated with quicker and greater improvement. FM systems show promise as a tool to use during phonological awareness training for at least some children at risk for dyslexia.

Supplemental Material S1. Schedule of teacher training for phonological awareness + FM intervention.

Supplemental Material S2. Progress monitoring assessment.

Reynolds, G., & Werfel, K. (2022). Impact of FM system use on acquisition of phonological awareness skills for children at risk of dyslexia: A preliminary classroom study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. Advance online publication.


This study was supported by an LSVT Global Small Student Grant (Principal Investigator: Reynolds). Phonak provided two Roger Focus FM systems for the purpose of this study.


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