Acquisition of Mandarin tonal processes (Tang et al., 2019)

Supplemental Material S1. Participant demographic information.

S2. Additional analysis on children with bilateral cochlear implants (Cis).

S3. Additional analysis of duration of hearing aid (HA) use before cochlear implant (CI) surgery on tonal acquisition.

S4. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s lexical tone productions, with two fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5) and “Tones” (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S5. Pairwise comparisons of lexical tone pitch contours (slope and curvature) between groups (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4 and CI_Imp 4-5) for each tone.

S6. Results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on pitch range in children's lexical tone productions, with an independent variable “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5) and a covariate “Chronological age.”

S7. Pairwise comparison of lexical tone pitch range between groups (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5).

S8. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s lexical tone productions, with two fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) and “Tones” (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S9. Pairwise comparisons of lexical tone pitch contours (slope and curvature) between groups (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) for each tone.

S10. Results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on pitch range in children's lexical tone productions, with an independent variable “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S11. Pairwise comparison of lexical tone pitch range between groups (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4).

S12. Results of linear regression model of lexical tone pitch slopes with different predictors: tone category (T1-4), age at implantation, CI experience, chronological age, and residual hearing. The predictors were entered into the model stepwise and the best model included all predictors.

S13. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s neutral tone productions, with three fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5), “Context” (after T1/2/4 and after T3), and “Type” (Reduplicatives and Possessives) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S14. Pairwise comparisons of neutral tone pitch slope between contexts (after T1/2/4 vs. after T3) across types (Reduplicative and Possessive) and groups (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5).

S15. Pairwise comparisons of neutral tone pitch slope between groups (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5) across types (Reduplicative and Possessive) and contexts (after T1/2/4 and after T3).

S16. Results of linear mixed-effects model on normalized duration of neutral tone syllables, with three fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5), “Context” (after T1/2/4 and after T3) and “Type” (Reduplicatives and Possessives) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S17. Pairwise comparisons of normalized duration of neutral tone syllables across types (Reduplicative and Possessive) and groups (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5).

S18. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s neutral tone productions, with three fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4), “Context” (after T1/2/4 and after T3) and “Type” (Reduplicatives and Possessives) and a covariate “Chronological age.”

S19. Pairwise comparisons of neutral tone pitch slope between contexts (after T1/2/4 vs. after T3) across groups (CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, CI_Exp 3-4, NH = 3).

S20. Pairwise comparisons of neutral tone pitch slope between groups (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) across contexts (after T1/2/4 and after T3).

S21. Results of linear mixed-effects model on normalized duration of neutral tone syllables, with three fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4), “Context” (after T1/2/4 and after T3) and “Type” (Reduplicatives and Possessives) and a covariate "Chronological Age.”

S22. Pairwise comparisons of normalized duration of neutral tone syllables groups (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4).

S23. Results of linear regression model of neutral tone pitch slopes with different parameters (Context: after T1/2/4 and after T3; Type: Reduplicative and Possessive). The predictors were entered into the model stepwise and the best model included all predictors.

S24. Results of linear regression model of neutral tone duration with different parameters (Context: after T1/2/4 and after T3; Type: Reduplicative and Possessive). The predictors were entered into the model stepwise and the best model included all predictors.

S25. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s disyllabic Context sandhi productions (Syllable 1), with two fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5) and “Context” (full sandhi vs. half sandhi) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S26. Pairwise comparisons of pitch slope of disyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllable 1) between two sandhi contexts (full sandhi vs. half sandhi) for each group (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5).

S27. Pairwise comparisons of pitch slope of disyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllable 1) between groups (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5) for each sandhi context (full sandhi and half sandhi).

S28. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s disyllabic tone sandhi productions (Syllable 1), with two fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) and “Context” (full sandhi vs. half sandhi) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S29. Pairwise comparisons of pitch slope of disyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllable 1) between two sandhi contexts (full sandhi vs. half sandhi) for each group (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4).

S30. Pairwise comparisons of pitch slope of disyllabic tone sandhi compounds (syllable 2) between groups (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) for each sandhi context (full sandhi and half sandhi).

S31. Results of linear regression model of pitch slope of disyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllable 1) with different predictors. The predictors were entered into the model stepwise and the best model included all predictors.

S32. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s trisyllabic tone sandhi productions (Syllables 1 and 2), with two fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5) and “Context” (double-T3 and triple-T3) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S33. Pairwise comparisons of pitch parameters of trisyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllables 1 and 2) between contexts (double-T3 vs. triple-T3) for each group (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5).

S34. Pairwise comparisons of pitch slope of trisyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllables 1 and 2) between groups (NH = 3, CI_Imp 1-2, CI_Imp 2-3, CI_Imp 3-4, and CI_Imp 4-5) for each sandhi context (double-T3 and triple-T3).

S35. Results of linear mixed-effects model on pitch shape (slope and curvature) in children’s trisyllabic tone sandhi productions (Syllables 1 and 2), with two fixed factors “Group” (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) and “Context” (double-T3 and triple-T3) and a covariate “Chronological Age.”

S36. Pairwise comparisons of pitch slope of trisyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllables 1 and 2) between contexts (double-T3 vs. triple-T3) for each group (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4).

S37. Pairwise comparisons of pitch slope of trisyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllables 1 and 2) between groups (NH = 3, CI_Exp < 1, CI_Exp 1-2, CI_Exp 2-3, and CI_Exp 3-4) for each sandhi context (double-T3 and triple-T3).

S38. Results of linear regression models of pitch slope of trisyllabic tone sandhi compounds (Syllables 1 and 2) with different predictors (Context: double-T3 context T3T3T1/2/4 and triple-T3 context T3T3T3). The predictors were entered into the model stepwise and the best model included all predictors.

S39. Additional analysis of Syllable 1 (carrying T1-4) in each neutral tone word of experiment 2.