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S1_JSLHR-23-00397elmazoska.pdf (692.86 kB)

Recreational noise and hearing: Systematic review (Elmazoska et al., 2024)

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posted on 2024-02-07, 16:13 authored by Iris Elmazoska, Elina Mäki-Torkko, Sarah Granberg, Stephen Widén

Purpose: There is an increasing concern regarding hazardous recreational noise exposure among adolescents and young adults. Daily exposure to loud sound levels over a long period of time can increase the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. The full extent of the impact of recreational noise on hearing is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this review was to synthesize research that investigated hearing function in relation to recreational noise exposure in adolescents and young adults.

Method: A systematic literature search of five databases covering the years 2000–2023 was performed. The articles included investigated audiological measurements of hearing function in relation to recreational noise exposure.

Results: Four hundred sixty records were identified, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the results. This review showed that although some recreational noise activities can be potentially harmful, there is an unclear relationship between exposure and outcome. Some findings indicated hearing threshold shifts or reduced otoacoustic emission amplitudes after recreational noise exposure, but most changes were short term and in the extended high-frequency range.

Conclusions: There seemed to be inconsistencies regarding the utilization of methods of measuring exposure and outcome between studies. This might be one reason for the differing results in studies on the reported impact on hearing function from recreational noise exposure. To draw more certain conclusions about long-term effects, there is a need for longitudinal research that utilizes sound level measurements to assess low and high degrees of recreational noise exposure in relation to hearing function.

Supplemental Material S1. List of studies excluded for high risk of bias with reasons.

Elmazoska, I., Mäki-Torkko, E., Granberg, S., & Widéna, S. (2024). Associations between recreational noise exposure and hearing function in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 67(2), 688–710.


This review is a study within a dissertation project funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE).