Motor-to-auditory correspondence and adaptation (Chao & Daliri, 2023)
Purpose: When the speech motor system encounters errors, it generates adaptive responses to compensate for the errors. Unlike errors induced by formant-shift perturbations, errors induced by formant-clamp perturbations do not correspond with the speaker’s speech (i.e., degraded motor-to-auditory correspondence). We previously showed that adaptive responses to formant-clamp perturbations are smaller than responses to formant-shift perturbations when perturbations are introduced gradually. This study examined responses to formant-clamp and formant-shift perturbations when perturbations are introduced suddenly.
Method: One group of participants (n = 30) experienced gradually introduced formant-clamp and formant-shift perturbations, and another group (n = 30) experienced suddenly introduced formant-clamp and formant-shift perturbations. We designed the perturbations based on participant-specific vowel configurations such that a participant’s first and second formants of /ɛ/ were perturbed toward their /æ/. To estimate adaptive responses, we measured formant changes (0–100 ms of the vowel) in response to the formant perturbations.
Results: We found that (a) the difference between responses to formant-clamp and formant-shift perturbations was smaller when the perturbations were introduced suddenly and (b) responses to suddenly introduced (but not gradually introduced) formant-shift perturbations positively correlated with responses to formant-clamp perturbations.
Conclusions: These results showed that the speech motor system responds to errors induced by formant-shift and formant-clamp perturbations more differently when perturbations are introduced gradually than suddenly. Overall, the quality of errors (formant-shift vs. formant-clamp) and the manner of introducing errors (gradually vs. suddenly) modulate the speech motor system’s evaluations of and responses to errors.
Supplemental Material S1. Results of the complete statistical analysis (by including all factors).
Chao, S.-C., & Daliri, A. (2023). Effects of gradual and sudden introduction of perturbations on adaptive responses to formant-shift and formant-clamp perturbations. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 66(5), 1588–1599. https://doi.org/10.1044/2023_JSLHR-21-00435