ASHA journals
2 files

Expository intervention for adolescents (Peterson & Ukrainetz, 2023)

online resource
posted on 2023-07-27, 19:47 authored by Amy K. Peterson, Teresa A. Ukrainetz

Purpose: This study investigated the effects of Sketch and Speak strategy intervention on expressive and receptive expository discourse for adolescents with language-related learning disabilities (LLD).

Method: Three participants completed baseline and twelve 45- to 60-min individual treatment sessions in a multiple-baseline across participants design. In treatment, participants learned to take notes using pictography and conventional bulleted notes, orally generate sentences from their notes, and orally practice full sentences and oral reports. Session tests with varied levels of instructional support were used to collect outcome data on free-recall oral reports, short-answer question responses, and participant notes. A distal, age-referenced expository task and social validity questionnaires were administered pre-/postintervention.

Results: Visual and statistical analyses revealed significant effects of treatment on the primary outcome measure of Oral Report Quality and on secondary outcomes of Note Quantity and Quality. There was no significant effect of treatment on Short-Answer Recall questions. Two participants generalized strategies during the treatment phase to independent performance on Oral Reports and one improved on Note Quality. All three participants improved on the distal expository measure. Social validity questionnaires showed participant awareness and buy-in of taught strategies, with potential for generalization at the high school level.

Conclusions: These adolescent students benefited from explicit instruction in note-taking strategies and systematic oral practice of expository discourse even within the challenging delivery setting of telepractice. This study provides evidence for the use of Sketch and Speak expository intervention with adolescents with LLD to improve comprehension and expression of grade-level material.

Supplemental Material S1. A sample 2-column note form used to teach note-taking on famous athletes.

Supplemental Material S2. A sample expository text on Michael Jordan (famous athlete) used in this study.

Peterson, A. K., & Ukrainetz, T. A. (2023). Sketch and Speak expository intervention for adolescents: A single-case experiment via telepractice. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. Advance online publication.


This dissertation was funded in part by a U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs Personnel Development Training Program at Utah State University.