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Adapted 6 + 1 Trait Scoring Rubric and Scored Writing Samples of First-Grade Written Composition (Kim et al., 2014)

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journal contribution
posted on 01.02.2014, 00:00 by Young-Suk Kim, Stephanie Al Otaiba, Jessica S. Folsom, Luana Greulich, Cynthia Puranik
Purpose This study examined dimensions of written composition by using multiple evaluative approaches such as an adapted 6 + 1 trait scoring, syntactic complexity measures, and productivity measures. It further examined unique relations of oral language and literacy skills to the identified dimensions of written composition.
Method A large sample of 1st-grade students (N = 527) was assessed on their language, reading, spelling, letter writing automaticity, and writing in the spring. Data were analyzed using a latent variable approach, including confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.
Results The seven traits in the 6 + 1 trait system were best described as two constructs: substantive quality and spelling and writing conventions. When the other evaluation procedures such as productivity and syntactic complexity indicators were included, four dimensions emerged: substantive quality, productivity, syntactic complexity, and spelling and writing conventions. Language and literacy predictors were differentially related to each dimension in written composition.
Conclusion These four dimensions may be a useful guideline for evaluating developing beginning writers' compositions.


This work was supported by Grant P50 HD052120 from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the funding agency. The authors wish to thank all the participating schools, students, and their parents.