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Optimizing intervention outcomes and experiences (Baker et al., 2022)

posted on 2022-04-08, 17:14 authored by Elise Baker, Sarah Masso, Kylie Huynh, Ellie Sugden
Purpose: Reporting of outcome and experience measures is critical to our understanding of the effect of intervention for speech sound disorders (SSD) in children. There is currently no agreed-upon set of measures for reporting intervention outcomes and experiences. In this article, we introduce the Speech Outcome Reporting Taxonomy (SORT), a tool designed to assist with the classification of outcome and experience measures. In a systematic search and review using the SORT, we explore the type and frequency of these measures reported in intervention research addressing phonological impairment in children. Given the integral relationship between intervention fidelity and intervention outcomes, reporting of fidelity is also examined.
Method: Five literature databases were searched to identify articles written or translated into English published between 1975 and 2020. Using the SORT, outcome and experience measures were extracted and categorized. The number of intervention studies reporting fidelity was determined.
Results: A total of 220 articles met inclusion criteria. The most frequently reported outcome domain was broad generalization measures (n = 142, 64.5%), followed by specific measures of generalization of an intervention target (n = 133, 60.5%). Eleven (5.0%) articles reported measures of the impact of the phonological impairment on children’s activity, participation, quality of life, or others. Twenty articles (9.1%) reported on parent, child, or clinician experience or child engagement. Fidelity data were reported for 13.4% of studies of interventions.
Conclusions: The measurement of intervention outcomes is challenging yet important. No single type of measure was reported across all articles. Through using tailored measures closely related to intervention targets in combination with a universal set of measures of intelligibility, the impact of phonological impairment on children’s lives, and the experience of receiving and providing intervention, researchers and clinicians could work together to progress insights and innovations in science and practice for children with SSD.

Supplemental Material S1. 220 peer-reviewed published articles on interventions for children with phonological impairment: Publications per year.

Supplemental Material S2. Types of outcome measures reported across domains of the Speech Outcome Reporting Taxonomy (SORT) for 220 peer-reviewed
published articles on intervention for children with phonological impairment.

Supplemental Material S3. Articles reporting child engagement, and child-, parent- and clinician-reported experience measures.

Baker, E., Masso, S., Huynh, K., & Sugden, E. (2022). Optimizing outcomes for children with phonological impairment: A systematic search and review of outcome and experience measures reported in intervention research. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. Advance online publication.

Publisher Note: This article is part of the Forum: Innovations in Treatments for Children With Speech Sound Disorders.


Elise Baker would like to acknowledge funding from Western Sydney University’s Research Start-up Award. Sarah Masso would like to acknowledge funding from the Australian Research Council, Discovery Early Career Research Award (DE200101078).