Comparing home and childcare language environment (Larson et al., 2020)

Purpose: This study was conducted in a large Midwestern metropolitan area to examine the language environments at home and in center-based childcare for young children who are living in poverty. We compared child language use and exposure in the home and childcare settings using extended observations with automated Language Environment Analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the environmental factors that may affect change in language outcomes for young children.
Method: Thirty-eight children, along with parents (n = 38) and childcare providers (n = 14) across five childcare centers, participated in this study. Each child completed a standardized language assessment and two daylong recordings with Language Environment Analysis to determine the number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations that occurred in each setting. Data were analyzed at 5-min intervals across each recording.
Results: Comparisons between home recordings in this sample and a comparison group showed reliably higher rates of adult words and conversational turns in the home setting. Linear mixed-effects regression models showed significant differences in the child language environments, with the home setting providing higher levels of language input and use. These effects were still meaningful after accounting for the time of day, participant demographic characteristics, and child language ability.
Conclusions: Practical implications for supporting child language development across settings are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided.

Supplemental Material S1. Results of the multilevel regression models for the three outcome variables without outlier.

Larson, A. L., Barrett, T. S., & McConnell, S. R. (2020). Exploring early childhood language environments: A comparison of language use, exposure, and interactions in the home and childcare settings. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. https://doi.org/10.1044/2019_LSHSS-19-00066