Clinical application of 2D DKG in diplophonia (Bae et al., 2019)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of diplophonia using an auditory perception and multimodal simultaneous examination, which included sound waveform analysis, electroglottography (EGG), digital kymography (DKG), and 2-dimensional scanning digital kymography (2D DKG). Additionally, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of each method using a binary classifier in confusion matrix and convenience of discrimination, based on the time required for interpretation.
Method: One normophonic male, 12 patients with diplophonia, and 12 dysphonia patients without diplophonia were enrolled. A multimodal simultaneous evaluation was used to analyze the vibration pattern of diplophonia. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, area under the curve, and interpretation time were used to compare the various diagnostic methods. Discrimination was determined by 3 raters.
Results: There are 3 types of asymmetric vibratory patterns in diplophonia. The types are based on the oscillators vibrating at different frequencies: asymmetry of the left and right cords (6 subjects with unilateral palsy and 1 subject with vocal polyps), asymmetry of anterior and posterior cords (2 subjects with vocal polyps), and asymmetry of true and false cords (3 subjects with muscle tension dysphonia). All evaluation methods were useful as diagnostic tools, with all areas under the curve > .70. The diagnostic accuracy was highest with DKG (95.83%), followed by 2D DKG (83.33%), EGG (81.94%), auditory-perceptual evaluation (80.56%), and sound waveform (77.78%). The interpretation time was the shortest for auditory-perceptual evaluation (6.07 ± 1.34 s), followed by 2D DKG (10.04 ± 3.00 s), EGG (12.49 ± 2.76 s), and DKG (13.53 ± 2.60 s).
Conclusions: Auditory-perceptual judgment was the easiest and fastest method for experienced raters, but its diagnostic accuracy was lower than that of DKG or 2D DKG. The diagnostic accuracy of DKG was the highest, but 2D DKG allowed rapid interpretation and showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy, except in cases with space-occupying lesions.

Supplemental Material S1. The multifunctional laryngeal examination system used for direct observation of laryngeal images in this study, showing high-speed videoendoscopy, 2D digital kymography, and digital kymography simultaneously displayed.

Bae, I.-H., Wang, S.-G., Kwon, S.-B., Kim, S.-T., Sung, E.-S., & Lee, J.-C. (2019). Clinical application of two-dimensional scanning digital kymography in discrimination of diplophonia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62, 3643–3644. https://doi.org/10.1044/2019_JSLHR-S-18-0175