2018 ASHA Research Symposium: Peter E. Turkeltaub, Brain Basis of Aphasia Outcomes

2019-11-22T20:32:05Z (GMT) by Peter E. Turkeltaub
This presentation video is from the Research Symposium at the 2018 annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association held in Boston, MA.

The abstract for the accompanying article is below. This article is part of the JSLHR Forum: Advances in Neuroplasticity Research on Language Recovery in Aphasia.

Purpose: Understanding the brain basis of language and cognitive outcomes is a major goal of aphasia research. Prior studies have not often considered the many ways that brain features can relate to behavioral outcomes or the mechanisms underlying these relationships. The purpose of this review article is to provide a new framework for understanding the ways that brain features may relate to language and cognitive outcomes from stroke.
Method: Brain–behavior relationships that may be important for aphasia outcomes are organized into a taxonomy, including features of the lesion and features of brain tissue spared by the lesion. Features of spared brain tissue are categorized into those that change after stroke and those that do not. Features that change are further subdivided, and multiple mechanisms of brain change after stroke are discussed.
Results: Features of the stroke, including size, location, and white matter damage, relate to many behavioral outcomes and likely account for most of the variance in outcomes. Features of the spared brain tissue that are unchanged by stroke, such as prior ischemic disease in the white matter, contribute to outcomes. Many different neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms may drive changes in the brain after stroke in association with behavioral recovery. Changes primarily driven by neurobiology are likely to occur in brain regions with a systematic relationship to the stroke distribution. Changes primarily driven by behavior are likely to occur in brain networks related to the behavior driving the change.
Conclusions: Organizing the various hypothesized brain–behavior relationships according to this framework and considering the mechanisms that drive these relationships may help investigators develop specific experimental designs and more complete statistical models to explain language and cognitive abilities after stroke. Eight main recommendations for future research are provided.

Turkeltaub, P. E. (2019). A taxonomy of brain–behavior relationships after stroke. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62(11), 3907–3922. https://doi.org/10.1044/2019_JSLHR-L-RSNP-19-0032