Language and dual-task after stroke (Salis et al., 2023)
Purpose: The dual-task paradigm has been frequently used to examine stroke-related deficits because it samples behavioral performance under conditions of distraction similar to functioning in real-life environments. This original systematic review synthesizes studies that examined dual-task effects involving spoken language production in adults affected by stroke, including transient ischemic attack (TIA) and poststroke aphasia.
Method: Five databases were searched (inception to March 2022) for eligible peer-reviewed articles. The 21 included studies reported a total of 561 stroke participants. Thirteen studies focused on single word production, for example, word fluency, and eight on discourse production, for example, storytelling. Most studies included participants who had suffered a major stroke. Six studies focused on aphasia, whereas no study focused on TIA. A meta-analysis was not appropriate because of the heterogeneity of outcome measures.
Results: Some single word production studies found dual-task language effects whereas others did not. This finding was compounded by the lack of appropriate control participants. Most single word and discourse studies utilized motoric tasks in the dual-task condition. Our certainty (or confidence) assessment was based on a methodological appraisal of each study and information about reliability/fidelity. As 10 of the 21 studies included appropriate control groups and limited reliability/fidelity information, the certainty of the findings may be described as weak.
Conclusions: Language-specific dual-task costs were identified in single word studies, especially those that focused on aphasia as well as half of the nonaphasia studies. Unlike single word studies, nearly all studies of discourse showed dual-task decrements on at least some variables.
Supplemental Material S1. PRISMA Abstracts checklist.
Supplemental Material S2. PRISMA Main checklist.
Supplemental Material S3. SWiM checklist.
Supplemental Material S4. Details of database searches.
Supplemental Material S5. Study appraisal tool.
Salis, C., Jarrar, R., & Murray, L. L. (2023). Language-specific dual-task effects after stroke: A systematic review. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 66(8), 2858–2883. https://doi.org/10.1044/2023_JSLHR-23-00006