ASHA journals
PERSP-20-00006werfel_SuppS1.pdf (80.39 kB)

Print referencing for CHL (Werfel & Lawrence, 2020)

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-11-09, 20:10 authored by Krystal L. Werfel, Sara Lawrence
Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article was to describe specific considerations for print-referencing interventions for children with hearing loss and present a case study.
Method: One preschool child with hearing loss who used amplification participated in this case study. The child participated individually in print-referencing book-reading intervention (10-min session once a week for 7 weeks), supplemented by parent carryover at home. Each session involved a dose of 20 print-referencing behaviors across two children’s books, for a cumulative intervention intensity of 140 print references. Assessment of the child’s print knowledge skills occurred at the beginning of each session.
Results: Print-referencing book-reading intervention was associated with gains in conceptual print knowledge.
Conclusions: Print referencing, when implemented with specific considerations for children with hearing loss in mind, may be an effective emergent literacy intervention for increasing conceptual print knowledge in preschool children with hearing loss. More research is needed in this area to determine appropriate dose and dose frequency, as well as effect of interventionist on gains.

Supplemental Material S1. Intervention protocol.

Werfel, K. L., & Lawrence, S. (2020). Improving conceptual print knowledge: A description of intervention considerations for children with hearing loss. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups. Advance online publication.


This study was supported by an ASHA AARC Award to Krystal L. Werfel and a University of South Carolina Honors College Apprentice Exploration Scholars Grant.