posted on 2020-12-22, 16:24authored byEmily Jackson, Suze Leitão, Mary Claessen, Mark Boyes
Purpose: Previous research into the working, declarative, and procedural memory systems in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) has yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of this research was to profile these memory systems in children with DLD and their typically developing peers.
Method: One hundred four 5- to 8-year-old children participated in the study. Fifty had DLD, and 54 were typically developing. Aspects of the working memory system (verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and visual–spatial short-term memory) were assessed using a nonword repetition test and subtests from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children. Verbal and visual–spatial declarative memory were measured using the Children’s Memory Scale, and an audiovisual serial reaction time task was used to evaluate procedural memory.
Results: The children with DLD demonstrated significant impairments in verbal short-term and working memory, visual–spatial short-term memory, verbal declarative memory, and procedural memory. However, verbal declarative memory and procedural memory were no longer impaired after controlling for working memory and nonverbal IQ. Declarative memory for visual–spatial information was unimpaired.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that children with DLD have deficits in the working memory system. While verbal declarative memory and procedural memory also appear to be impaired, these deficits could largely be accounted for by working memory skills. The results have implications for our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying language impairment in the DLD population; however, further investigation of the relationships between the memory systems is required using tasks that measure learning over long-term intervals.
Supplemental Material S1. Groups of children with and without SRT data (demographic features and means and standard deviations on participant selection measures).
Supplemental Material S2. Results of bivariate correlations between all variables.
Supplemental Material S3. Covariate factors in MANCOVAs for working, declarative, and procedural memory analyses.
Jackson, E., Leitão, S., Claessen, M., & Boyes, M. (2020). Working, declarative, and procedural memory in children with developmental language disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00135
The first author was supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship, and the fourth author was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia (Investigator Grant 1173043).