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S1_JSLHR-23-00411nip.pdf (22.41 kB)

Loud speech in children with cerebral palsy (Nip, 2024)

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posted on 2024-01-16, 17:34 authored by Ignatius S. B. Nip

Purpose: Speech motor control changes underlying louder speech are poorly understood in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The current study evaluates changes in the oral articulatory and laryngeal subsystems in children with CP and their typically developing (TD) peers during louder speech.

Method: Nine children with CP and nine age- and sex-matched TD peers produced sentence repetitions in two conditions: (a) with their habitual rate and loudness and (b) with louder speech. Lip and jaw movements were recorded with optical motion capture. Acoustic recordings were obtained to evaluate vocal fold articulation.

Results: Children with CP had smaller jaw movements, larger lower lip movements, slower jaw speeds, faster lip speeds, reduced interarticulator coordination, reduced low-frequency spectral tilt, and lower cepstral peak prominences (CPP) in comparison to their TD peers. Both groups produced louder speech with larger lip and jaw movements, faster lip and jaw speeds, increased temporal coordination, reduced movement variability, reduced spectral tilt, and increased CPP.

Conclusions: Children with CP differ from their TD peers in the speech motor control of both the oral articulatory and laryngeal subsystems. Both groups alter oral articulatory and vocal fold movements when cued to speak loudly, which may contribute to the increased intelligibility associated with louder speech.

Supplemental Material S1. Individual means and standard deviations for each dependent variable during habitual and loud speaking tasks.

Nip, I. S. B. (2024). Articulatory and vocal fold movement patterns during loud speech in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 67(2), 477–493.


This study was funded by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant R03-DC012135 awarded to the author, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, and the San Diego State University Grants Program.